Ingredients (as laid down in Pasley vs. Freeman [100 Eng. Rep. 450 (K.B. 1789)])

  1. Representation (of fact by word or through conduct with)
  2. The statement must be made without belief in its truth (knowingly or recklessly making a fraudulent statement)
    • Derry vs. Peek, (1889) LR 14 App Cas 337
    • Edgington vs. Fitzmaurice(1885) 29 Ch D 459
    • West London Commercial bank Ltd vs. Kitson13 Q. B. D. 360
  3. Intent (that it should be acted upon)
    • Langridge vs. Levy(1837) 150 ER 863
  4. Claimant must rely on the statement (and act upon it)
    • Central Ry. of Venezuela vs. Kisch(1867) L. R. 2 H. L. 99
  5. Damage (claimant suffered damage)
    • Smith New Court Securities Ltd. vs. Scrimgeour Vickers Ltd.[1996] 4 All ER 769