Ingredients (as laid down in Erven Warnink vs. Townend[1979] AC 731  by Lord Diplock)

  1. Misrepresentation (confusing or deceiving persons in relation to the goods, services or business of the claimant, or likely to do so)
    • Reckitt & Colman vs. Borden Inc., [1990] 1 All E.R. 873
    • British Diabetic Association vs. Diabetic Society Ltd. [1995] 4 All ER 812
    • Honda Motors Co. Ltd vs. Charanjit Singh & Others2003 (26) PTC 1 Del
    • Scotch whisky Assocn. vs. Pravara Sahakara Sakar Karkhana, AIR 1992 Bom 294
  2. Made by a person in the course of trade;
  3. To prospective customers of his or ultimate consumers of goods or services supplied by him;
  4. Which is calculated to injure the business or goodwill of another trader;
    • Parker Knoll vs. Knoll, [1962] RPC 243
    • Reddaway vs. Banham, [1896] A.C. 199
    • Ellora Industries vs. Banarasi Das, AIR 1980 Delhi 254
  5. Damage (claimant suffers or is likely to suffer damage as a result of that belief)